State Profile : Nagaland

        Nagaland the sixteenth state of Indian Union formed on 1st December 1963 by amalgamation of the erstwhile Naga Hill District of Assam and Tuensang Area which was under a separate administrative control



Located between 250 60' & 27040' North latitude and 930 20' & 95015' East longitude.

North & West : Bounded by Assam

East : Bounded by Myanmar and Arunachal Pradesh

South : Bounded by Manipur

16579 sq. km.


(As per 2001 Census)

Total Population


Total Rural Population


Total Urban Population

Nagaland is hilly interspread with ridges and valleys. The altitude varies between 110 to 3840 meters above sea level.


Physical Features
  1. Climate & Railfall : The climate of the state is bracing and healthy. Summer temperature ranges from 7 to 23 degree Celcius. The average annual rainfall ranges from 200 to 280cms.
  2. Agro-Climatic Zones : The State falls under Mid-Tropical Hill Zone category of Agro-Climatic Zonal Classification with further sub-classification into three distinct geographical regions - (i) High Hill Areas with lateritic soils and non-laterised red soils. (ii) Lower Hill Ranges of brown forest soils and podzolic soils and (iii) Foothils/Valleys with recent alluvium, old alluvium and mountain soils.
  3. Soils : Soils of Nagaland are derived from Tertiary rocks belonging to the Barail and Disang series. The Barials consists of alternating layers of sandstones and shales with carboniferous intrusions or even coal seams. The underlying Desang series represent unfossiliferous shales, slates and phylites. Soils are acidic and very rich in organic carbon but poor in phosphate and potash content.
  4. Forest Cover : The forest in Nagaland may be classified under three types : (i) Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest (ii) Tropical Semi Evergreen Forest and (iii) Montane Sub-tropical Pine Forests. Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest with valuable evergreen timber species in the top canopy with bamboos occurring abundantly is most important in terms of commercial exploitation.
Demographic Features
Nagaland has a predominant tribal population generically referred to as Nagas with several tribes and sub-tribes and clans etc. speaking diverse dialects specific to each tribe. The major tribes of Nagaland are Angami, Ao, Chang, Chakesang, Khiammungan, Konyak, Lotha, Phom, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Zeliang and a fewmixed tribes such as Kacharis, Mikirs, and Gorkhas.
Status of Human Resources
The population of the State as per the 2001 census is 19.90 lakhs consisting of 10.47 lakhs males and 9.43 lakh females. The rural population constituted 82% of the total population. The population below proverty line stands at 6.51 lakhs constituting 32.70% of the total population. The population density in the state is 120 persons per sq. km. The literacy level is 67%.
Occupational Pattern
Agriculture continues to be the main occupation of the people engaging nearly 68% of workers. A small segment of the population are engaged in weaving, Blacksmithy, Handicrafts and other small village industries as part-time occupation.
System of Land Ownership
In Nagaland the problem of fragmentation of land holding is not an issue on account of the peculiar pattern of lan ownership, tenure and use prevalent in the state. There are no larger holdings and intermediary rights are hardly in existence. A small area of about 259 sq. km in Dimapur Mouza has been cadastrally surveyed. In the rest of the state there has been no cadastral survey and systematic land record of rights. The only legal framework is the Jhum Land Regulation Act. 1970. The ownership of land and the individual rights are governed by customary laws of the community.
Econimic Indicators
The Gross State Domestic Product for the year 2002-03 is estimated at Rs. 2587.98 Crore with a per capita income of Rs. 11,367. The Infrastructure Development Index for the state stands at 71 against the all India average of 138.
The state still suffers from a shortfall in its generation of power. Against the present requirement of 60 MW, the State's own generation is 6.12 MW only. The shortfall is presently met through purchases from Manipur, Meghalaya and Assam.
Transport & Communication
Out of total road length of 18,536 km only 5241 km are surfaced. The proportion of unsurfaced roads tp total roads is 71.45%. The road density per 1000 sq. km is 1107.12. 113 km of National Highway run through the state, while 398 km of roads represents State Highway.
At present there are no Medium or Large irrigation projects in the State. The potential for irrigation is estimated at 165000 Ha.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Nagaland and the source of employment for majority of its inhabitant. About 68% people are engaged in agriculture. An important features of Agriculture in the state is Jhumming or Shifting cultivation.


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